Jaipur

Albert Hall Museum
History - Albert Hall Museum
Albert hall consist of Indo saracenic type of architecture and is designed same as the Victoria and Albert museum which is located in London. The building and the assortment beholds the beauty of the sight along with the pillars. The courtyards and the arches of the museum are worth seeing. This Albert museum was created in the 19th century.

This museum amazingly houses 19,000 historic objects and has various collections like metal ware, ivory work, lacquer work, jewelry, textiles, pottery carved wooden objects, arms and weapons, clay models , sculptures, educational, scientific and zoological objects, tribal costumes, ceramics, oil and miniature paintings, inlay work, musical instruments, clocks and marble statues. The museum was designed in the year 1876 by Colonel Sir Swinton just to greet King Edward VII as Prince of Wales on his visit to India. Museum was opened to public ten years later from its designing. The museum also has an assortment of rare articles on its display including textiles, carpets, paintings, metal and wood crafts, pottery, arms and weapons, flora and fauna of the state, toys, dolls and even an Egyptian mummy that belongs to the Ptolemaic Epoch. It shows the scene of a Persian garden Carpet with running water streams and is also renowned for housing the famous carpet. Mirza Raja Jai Singh bought it from Shah Abbas of Persia.

Attraction - Albert Hall Museum
In an attempt to depict the uniqueness of the dresses and jewelry of all the classes and tribes of Rajasthani people the galleries on the ground floor of the museum have been completely remodeled and restructured since 1959 including the privileged class that mainly consists of Rajputs and the merchant class. Lifestyle of the tribals such as Meenas, Bhopas, Bhils, Gadoliya Lohars are included. One gallery shows the heena body art of Rajasthan, which is known as "Mehndi Mandana" , which shows an exhibition of the typical Rajasthani motifs and designs that are rigourslyl recognized as ethic all over the world. Another gallery recognizes Puppets and Phad paintings. The highlights of the museum are displayed in another gallery of museum which is in its central gallery , which is completely shows Rajasthani music and dance forms.

The central museum is the most visited destination by tourists of Jaipur. It is famed for its enormous and exclusive collection. One section of the museum, also known as Darbar Hall, has the largest floor covering in the world. This is the oldest and finest identified carpet, and is solitary in its kind. This museum remains open all days expect on the Holi festival.the timings are from 9:30 am to 4:30 pm.

Amber Fort
The Amber Fort, built in 1592, once served as the palace and capital of the Kachchawahs during their reign until 1727, when the capital was moved to Jaipur. While the fort was abandoned in the eighteenth century, the remaining palaces, temples and courtyards are surprisingly well preserved and have retained much of their original beauty and craftsmanship. In 2013 the Hill Forts of Rajasthan, including Amber Fort, were awarded UNESCO World Heritage status.
Located about 7 miles (11 kilometers) from Jaipur, the Amber Fort sits on a hill top and faces out over the Maota Lake. To enter the fort, you must make the steep climb by foot, jeep or elephant, passing beneath the Sun Gate and into the inner palaces.
Plan to spend a minimum of half a day at the Amber Fort, taking care not to miss the Shila Davi Temple (dedicated to the goddess Kali) with its intricately worked silver doors, the glass mosaics of the Mirror Palace and the filigreed marble windows in the Jas Mandir hall on the upper floors.

City Palace, Jaipur
Located in the heart of the Pink City Jaipur, the City Palace was where the Maharaja reigned from. This palace also includes the famous 'Chandra Mahal' and 'Mubarak Mahal', and other buildings which form a part of the palace complex. The palace is located towards the northeast side of central Jaipur and has many courtyards and buildings. The palace was built between 1729 and 1732 AD by Sawai Jai Singh II. He ruled in Amer and planned and built the outer walls of the palace and later rulers added to the architecture of this palace. These additions have been known to take place right up to the 20th century. The urban layout of the city of Jaipur was commissioned to Vidyadhar Bhattacharya and Sir Samuel Swinton Jacob. The architectural styles are largely based on a fusion of Rajput, Mughal and European styles. Today, the 'Chandra Mahal' has been turned into a museum which is home to unique handcrafted products, various uniforms of the rulers and many more things pertaining to the royal heritage of the City Palace.

History Of City Palace
Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II is known to have commissioned work for building the outer wall of the city's complex. He shifted from Amer to Jaipur due to water problems and an increase in population in 1727. He had entrusted the city's architectural design to the chief architect Vidyadhar Bhattacharya. The architect went on to design the City Palace in accordance with the Vaastushastra texts.

Hawa Mahal
Constructed in 1799, Hawa Mahal is the most sensational monument in the city of Jaipur. The palace, overlooks one of Jaipur's main streets and was originally constructed to offer women of the court an upper hand, so that they can watch the activities taking place in the bazaar and the surrounding streets behind stone-carved screens. For this purpose, it was designed with over 900 niches, and the entire building is shaped like a crown adorning Lord Krishna's head.
The site offers superb views of the city, including the many old palaces and houses which were painted ocher-pink for the 1853 visit of Prince Albert. This five-story, pyramid-shaped structure is made up of small casements, each with tiny windows and arched roofs, beautifully modeled and carved. There is a total lack of ornamentation on the inner face of the building. The chambers are plain and more mass of pillars and passages leading to the top storey.

Famous for it's Beehive like structure, the entrance to the Hawa Mahal is in the rear side of the main building, the front portion of the building having no entry at all, unlike conventional buildings. The Hawa Mahal is made of red and pink sand stone, beautifully outlined with white borders and motif's painted with quick lime.
This five storey building of unusual architecture designed by Lal Chand Usta, is a stunning example of Rajput artistry made of red and pink sand stone, beautifully outlined with white borders and motif's painted with quick lime. Its facade from the road side makes Hawa Mahal look more like a delicate screen than a palace. This five-story, pyramid-shaped structure has tier after tier of 953 small casements, each with tiny lattice worked (Jali) pink windows, small balconies and arched roofs with hanging cornices, exquisitely modeled and carved.

Jaigarh Fort
The Jaigarh Fort is located at a distance of 15 kilometers from Jaipur and is one of the three hill top fort that overlooks Jaipur. Situated 400 feet above the Amber Fort, it was built for defense of Amer and hence has military structure that can be comprehended by its citadel kind of architectural style. The Jaigarh Fort is perched on top of a hill while the Amber Fort is on the foot hill. It is believed that both the forts are connected through a well guarded passage. Known as the Fort of Victory, it is a massive fort that has bravely faced the tempests of time. The Jaigarh fort was built between the 15th and 18th Century and is well maintained and preserved till date.
Though a simple construct, one can find a well planned cannon foundry, temples, a granary, a tall tower within the fort complex. Built on a height, the magnificent view of the city from this fort is also something to look forward to. Its main entrance is called Dungar Darwaza, which is a magnificent structure, allures everyone. The main attraction of this fort is the Jaivan. It is said to be the biggest cannon on wheels in the world. Though, never used in any war, its trial test resulted in a lake and destruction of few small villages. The Fort also has a museum, which has a collection of ancient coins, puppets and photographs, arms and ammunitions like swords, muskets, canons, shields and guns of the rulers of Rajasthan. The fort also holds a huge collection of ancient coins and puppets as is used as a treasury by the royal house of Jaipur.
With an underground water tank, with a capacity of 60,00,000 gallons of water, the fort also has provision for rainwater harvesting, with many channels dug all around the fort that lead to the underground water tank. The fort has a meeting Hall of Warriors or Shubhat Niwas, where huge drums that were used for some important announcement can be seen.

Jal Mahal Palace
Jal Mahal Jaipur, known for its sophisticated design and grand architecture, presents one more unique palace, the Jal Mahal, perched amidst the Mansagar lake. Once a home to one of the prime ministers of Jaipur estate, this palace was developed as a pleasure spot and was used for the royal duck shooting parties. Surrounded by Nahargarh Hills, the Jal Mahal is extremely romantic, with its red sandstone intricate architecture casting beautiful reflections in the calm waters of the Man Sagar Lake, full of hyacinths. It is now abandoned, but very well-preserved and provides a picturesque view from Nahargarh Fort.
Jal Mahal Jaipur also known as Water Palace is considered as one of the most beautiful architectural palace that was built with the Mughal and Rajput craftsmanship. Jal Mahal palace provides a charming view of the Man Sagar Lake and the Nahargarh hills that border it. It is considered an architectural beauty built in the Rajput and Mughal styles of architecture. The boats are traditionally built by boat makers of Vrindavan and a ride to Jal Mahal in those boats takes you to the beautiful history of Rajasthan.

History of Jal Mahal Jaipur
Jal Mahal which literally means the "Water Palace" is a palace located in the middle of the Man Sagar Lake in Jaipur city, the capital of the state of Rajasthan. The palace and the lake around it were modernized and enlarged in the 18th century by Maharaja Jai Singh II of Amber. Jal Mahal, that means water palace in English, is a beautiful place that is located in the center of the lake Man Sagar, in Jaipur.

Jal Mahal ArchitectureM
Jal Mahal Jaipur is made of red stone and is 5 stories high. The 4 floors of the palace stay under the water and it is only the 5th floor that is visible. There are 4 chattris on all the four corners of the palace. These are octagonal in shape. The fort has some of the exquisite marble carvings which denote the royal touch and the palace also has twenty pillars which are the cenotaph of the royal family of Raja Jai Singh. The lake, as well as the place, was renovated by Maharaja Jai Singh 2 in the 18th century.
During the rainy seasons, the city lake gets filled up with water. The water palace is open only through boats that take the tourist from the land to the palace in the center of the lake. Even while crossing the palace for the road, the whole view looks very charming that it attracts people of all ages. The lake used to be a bird watcher's paradise in the past and was a favorite ground for the Rajput kings of Jaipur for royal duck shooting parties during picnics. The lake was home to more than 150 species of local and migratory birds that included Large Flamingo, Great Crested Grebe, Pintail, Pochards, Kestrel, Coot, Redshank, Marsh Sandpiper, Ruff, Herring Gull, Red-breasted Flycatcher, Grey Wagtail, but their numbers declined with the worsening of the lake.
The reserve forest area of the lake catchment has several wildlife species such as Deer, Jungle cat, striped hyena, Indian Fox, Indian wild Boar, and leopards. Jal Mahal Jaipur is one or the sites which tells the story of the royals and their exclusive taste and creations.

Jantar Mantar Jaipur
Jantar Mantar, the modern name of 'Yantra Mantra' which means 'Instrument with Formula' is an elaborate and ancient astronomical masterpiece and observatory constructed under the guidance of Maharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur between 1724 and 1734. It lies in the heart of Delhi and easily accessible from any corner of the Capital City by local transport.
The Yantra Mantra aka Jantar Mantar constitute of 13 astronomy instruments built in the architectural form of huge structures which were in fact given as a task to the Maharaja by Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah in order to revive the astronomical tables and annual calendar and at the same time ensure a medium to record and compile all the astronomical data and future predictions of time coupled with studying the movements of the Sun, Moon and other Planetary bodies.

The Yantra Mantra also known as Jantar Mantar constitute of 13 astronomy instruments built in the architectural form of huge structures which were in fact given as a task to the Maharaja by Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah in order to revive the astronomical tables and annual calendar and at the same time ensure a medium to record and compile all the astronomical data and future predictions of time coupled with studying the movements of the Sun, Moon and other Planetary bodies.
In the earlier centuries, the astrologers had to manually feed in their calculated predictions using the Yantra Mantra instruments to predict findings and this can only mean that these people would have had to possess a brilliant mind and be outstanding in the field of mathematics, metaphysics and various methods of astronomical studies to depict accurate calculations which today has been made easy partially through computers with built-in software for any prediction and markings though many high-tech instruments are also available for studying planetary movements which definitely require astronomers to possess the thorough knowledge of science. The placard placed in 1910 by the Delhi Tourism Board on this Monumental observatory displays the date of 1710 but research and further investigation revealed that the structures were originally constructed in 1724.

The Yantra Mantra or Jantar Mantar was built like a massive equinoctial dial seen with a gigantic triangular shaped gnomon and the hypotenuse lying parallel to the axis of the Earth and on either side, a quadrant of a circle lies parallel to the plane of the Earth's equator. This instrument is used to calculate and measure the time during the day along with the decline of the Sun and the planetary bodies. It is noted that this instrument is amazingly accurate missing just by half a second despite the fact that it was the 18th Century we are talking about.
Maharaja Jai Singh Sawai II of Jaipur who constructed this Yantra Mantra (Jantar Mantar) in Delhi is also accredited for constructing similar four other astronomical observatories in Jaipur, Mathura, Ujjain and Varanasi between 1724 and 1735. The name 'Yantra Mantra' is derived from the context of calculation and hence is literally translated into 'A Calculation Instrument'. Each of these calculation instruments within the New Delhi Jantar Mantar Observatory were beautifully named as per their specific purpose and usage for calculations by the King as 'Samrat Yantra', 'Ram Yantra', 'Jai Prakash Yantra' and 'Mishra Yantra'.

The Samrat Yantra which means 'Supreme Instrument' is seen in the shape of a gigantic triangle which represents an equal hour Sun-dial measuring 70 feet in height, 114 feet in length at the base of 10 feet thickness while the Hypotenuse that stretches parallel to the axis of the Earth is 128 feet long. On either side of this hypotenuse is a quadrant along with graduations depicting the hours, the minutes and seconds of the day. Though Sun-dials did exist during that era but this Instrument changed the basic sun-dial into a tool of precision calculation to include the ability to measure the coordinates and declination of other planetary systems.
The Jai Prakash Yantra Instrument is seen in the shape of a hollow hemisphere with concave surfaces seen with markings inscribed on them. Cross-wires are seen stretching over each point on the surface rim.
The Ram Yantra is another Instrument under which 'The Ram' which means 'The observer' could sit inside and align the instrument with the position of the stars using various markings or the edge of a window.
The Mishra Yantra Instrument is used to depict the time of noon of various cities across the world and is the only one which was not constructed by Maharaja Jai Singh Sawai II.
The Jantar Mantar Observatory is one of those few Monuments that has been well maintained by the Government of Delhi and attracts tourists and visitors from the entire globe who come to view this ancient astronomical delight and fill their curious minds about the significance of astrology and the usage of the various tools and methods applied during those past centuries for calculations and predictions.

Nahargarh Fort
The ancient Nahargarh Fort was constructed by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, founder of Jaipur in the year 1734. He built this fort on the majestic Aravalli hills mainly as a retreat destination. The majestic Nahargarh Fort is hooked up to the famous Jaigarh Fort from end to end of its ramparts. According to legends, the edifice of Nahargarh fort was thwarted by the spirit of a Rathore prince named Nahar Singh Bhomia.
Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh discovered that the property in which he tried to raise the fort once belonged to a former Rathore prince named Nahar Singh and his spirit hated the unexpected commotion in his holy dwelling. Nevertheless, the spirit Nahar Singh Bhomia was satisfied when Jai Singh built a small fortress (at Purana Ghat) inside the fort and devoted that fort to the dead Rathore Prince.
Later, a small temple was also built in that place. In 1868, King Sawai Ram Singh refurbished Nahargarh fort. Later, in 1880, Maharaja Sawai Madho Singh rehabilitated Nahargarh fort into a torrential rain run away. He ordered Raj Imarat (person who was in charge for stately building projects) to plan an enjoyment fortress within the fort. This amusement place named as Madhavendra Bhawan. Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, the architect of Jaipur, constructed Madhavendra Bhawan with fine-looking interiors, wall paintings and stucco patterns.

History Of The Fort
Nahargarh Fort was built in 1734 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, founder of Jaipur, on the Aravalli hills, as a retreat place. Nahargarh Fort is connected to the Jaigarh Fort through its fortifications. It is believed that the construction of this fort was obstructed by the spirit of a Rathore prince, Nahar Singh Bhomia. However, the spirit was pacified when a temple dedicated to him was built inside the fort. Sawai Ram Singh renovated this fort in 1868.

Architectural Layout Of The Fort
The fort follows Indo-European architecture and there are many structures inside the fort. To the left of the entrance gate 'Tadigate', there is a temple dedicated to the deity of Jaipur rulers. Apart from this, there is another temple inside the fort, dedicated to the Rathore prince, Nahar Singh Bhomia. Another attraction in the fort is the 'Madhavendra Bhawan' built by Sawai Madho Singh. This is a two-storey building which has suites for the king and his twelve queens. It is divided into nine similar apartments and each of these apartments has a lobby, bedrooms, toilets, kitchen and store. Other structures inside the palace include Diwan-I-Aam, an open air enclosure where the king met the common men and listened to their problems and complaints.

Important Battles
Nahargarh Fort was never attacked but, it witnessed some major historical events, like the treaties with the Maratha forces which attacked Jaipur in the 18th century. This fort gave shelter to many Europeans in this region, including the British Resident's wife, during the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857.